Hiv transmission through breast milk

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The cumulative infection rate while breastfeeding, from month 1 to the end of months 5, 11, 17, and 23, was 3. Incidence per month was 0. The only factors significantly associated with low risk of postnatal HIV transmission in a multivariate model were high maternal parity RR, 0.

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Complex sugars in breast milk are increasingly being linked to specific health effects. A type of sugar that occurs naturally in breast milk can double the likelihood of a HIV-negative baby acquiring the virus through breast feeding if the mother has HIV. The molecule, called 3'-sialyllactose 3'-SLis found in varying concentrations in the milk of different women.

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Recommendations from global health authorities endorse exclusive breastfeeding for all babies for the first six months of life and continued partial breastfeeding for up to two years or beyond. Most HIV-exposed babies are born in places where breastfeeding is the cultural norm and where formula-feeding is particularly unwelcome, unnatural and stigmatising. Current World Health Organization guidance on HIV and infant feeding is clear that for most mothers in most countries, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, followed by continued partial breastfeeding for at least the first year of life will enhance HIV-free child survival.

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US recommendations are against breastfeeding — regardless of ART status or viral load — due to the availability of clean water and affordable alternatives to breast milk. Since those recommendations were published, there has been an increase in evidence regarding postnatal transmission risk when mother or child or both are receiving ART. In light of these newer insights, the current investigators conducted a review of the literature to determine the rates of HIV transmission at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months in infants who breastfed for at least 6 months and whose mothers received ART through at least 6 months postpartum.

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More than 15 percent of new HIV infections occur in children. Without treatment, only 65 percent of HIV-infected children will live until their first birthday, and fewer than half will make it to the age of two. Although breastfeeding is attributed to a significant number of these infections, most breastfed infants are not infected with HIV, despite prolonged and repeated exposure.

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Recommendations for breastfeeding during maternal infections. Joel A. Lamounier I ; Zeina S.

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Mother-to-child transmission can occur during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. The best way to prevent transmission of HIV to an infant through breast milk is to not breastfeed. In the United States, where mothers have access to clean water and affordable replacement feeding infant formulaCDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics External recommend that HIV-infected mothers completely avoid breastfeeding their infants, regardless of ART and maternal viral load.

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Since breast milk can contain HIV, U. Many studies have investigated the issue, with one study of babies born to women with HIV in Zambia finding a more than three-fold increased risk of early postnatal HIV transmission with mixed feeding compared to exclusive breastfeeding. A more recent theory is that women who only breastfeed intermittently are more likely to have engorged breasts and breast inflammation, which increases the amount of virus that they shed in their breast milk. Clinicians and community health specialists discussed this issue during a webinar held by the San Francisco Department of Public Health.

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As we swap out old for new, pages will be in transition. Thanks for your patience — please keep coming back to see the improvements. Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative.

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Jump to navigation. Hundreds of thousands of children are infected this way every year, with most of them in developing countries. In many resource-rich settings, mothers with HIV infection are counseled not to breastfeed their children, and there are feasible and affordable alternatives to breastfeeding. However, in parts of the world where the vast majority of mothers with HIV infection live, complete avoidance of breastfeeding is often not feasible for example, because of the lack of availability of clean water and of affordable replacement feeding.

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